By Paul Vincent Spade
The Franciscan William of Ockham was once an English medieval thinker, theologian, and political theorist. Ockham is necessary not just within the heritage of philosophy and theology, but in addition within the improvement of early glossy technology and of contemporary notions of estate rights and church-state family. This quantity bargains an entire dialogue of all major elements of Ockham's concept: common sense, philosophy of language, metaphysics and traditional philosophy, epistemology, ethics, motion idea, political idea and theology. it's the first research of Ockham in any language to make complete use of the recent severe versions of his works, and to think about fresh discoveries relating his lifestyles, schooling, and impacts.
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Extra info for The Cambridge Companion to Ockham (Cambridge Companions to Philosophy)
Quite possibly this reﬂects a tension between Aristotle’s explicit description of a sentence in On Interpretation and the demands of syllogistic, which requires that every sentence have two categorematic terms and a copula around which these terms may be converted. If so, it is a tension Ockham never explicitly addresses. The simplest categorical sentence has a discrete term as subject, a common term as predicate, and ‘is’ as copula. ” That is, the sentence is true if the predicate supposits (inter alia) for the thing the subject supposits for.
Personal supposition is in many ways the default supposition for Ockham; for example, predicates (as contrasted with subjects) always have personal supposition. A term has simple supposition when it stands in a sentence for the mental term to which it is subordinated. Ockham thinks genera and species are mental terms, and thus he thinks that in a sentence like ‘(The) Donkey is a species,’ ‘donkey’ stands for the concept of donkey. A term has material supposition when it stands in a sentence for itself or a related term.
Socrates, insofar as he is human, is an animal’) or exceptives (‘Every human except Socrates is asleep’) are categorical in grammatical structure but semantically equivalent to molecular sentences and so have the truth conditions the corresponding molecular sentences have. Others, particularly explicitly tensed or modal sentences, require extensions of the basic semantic picture. ” A sentence like ‘Some white thing will be black’ has two readings. In both readings the supposition of the predicate term ‘black’ is displaced so that it stands not for the things that are now black (which is what it signiﬁes in the narrow sense) but for the things that will be at any future time black.