The Ecology of Reproduction in Wild and Domestic Mammals by R. M. F. S. Sadlier

By R. M. F. S. Sadlier

49 approximately six months ... to good over a 12 months. If there's just one a part of the yr that's beneficial, comparable to spring and early summer season within the temperate climates, then each one species needs to make an evolutionary selection, to be able to converse, as to which components of the reproductive cycle - perception, gestation, lactation or weanin- needs to be safe and that could are available in much less beneficial instances of the 12 months. The rhesus and langur monkeys of northern India supply delivery through the time of 12 months while temperatures are most popular and wells and tanks are usually dry. notwithstanding, gestation and the later months oflactation come through the monsoon season while nutrients and water are plentiful. by contrast the east African baboons supply start at first of the small rains, and gestation and the overdue a part of lactation take place in the course of the six months dry season. even if any trend of courting may be stumbled on to carry precise for different species of primates remains to be no longer transparent. it can be big choice of styles have developed counting on the lengths of gestation and lactation and the actual ecological advanced within which every one species or maybe subspecies lives' (pages 503, 504).

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The effect is not so marked in males as in females, but males in the middle weight class in the two lower-density ricks showed a much higher incidence of fecundity than in the high-density ricks. A varying attainment of female puberty in the different densities was found in both the middle and lower age classes, a marked increase in the proportion fecund being seen in the smallest class in the two lowerdensity ricks. Both the above papers describe other differences in the reproductive efficiency of the mice populations at various densities, and these will be discussed later in the book (see page 241).

CaliJornicus. On the other hand, Kalela (1957) describes striking differences in the proportions of juvenile voles (Cletkrionomys rufocanus) reaching puberty in different years. In his study at Kilpisjarvic in Finnish Lapland, vole numbers were low in the spring of 1954, but had started to increase considerably by autumn. Males and females reached puberty quickly at the beginning of the year, but more slowly after August when the density had increased. The peak in numbers came in 1955. Practically all males remained immature, especially at one locality (Malla) where the numbers were particularly high.

PART TWO The Breeding Season CHAPTER 8 Ecological Factors and the Breeding Season: Introduction Mammals reproduce successfully over a wide range of latitudes and climatic conditions. In the course of mammalian reproduction, the period from late pregnancy through birth to lactation is a period when the mother and infant are both susceptible to detrimental effects from external environmental factors. It therefore seems logical to assume that mammals will tend to produce their young at a period of the year when environmental conditions are optimal for survival of both mother and young.

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