The Exile and Return of Writers from East-Central Europe by John Neubauer, Borbála Zsuzsanna Török

By John Neubauer, Borbála Zsuzsanna Török

This is often the 1st comparative research of literature written by means of writers who fled from East-Central Europe in the course of the 20th century. It comprises not just interpretations of person lives and literary works, but in addition reports of crucial literary journals, publishers, radio courses, and different features of exile literary cultures. The theoretical a part of creation distinguishes among exiles, èmigrès, and expatriates, whereas the historic half surveys the pre-twentieth-century exile traditions and offers an summary of the exilic occasions among 1919 and 1995; one part is dedicated to exile cultures in Paris, London, and long island, in addition to in Moscow, Madrid, Toronto, Buenos Aires and different towns. The stories concentrate on the factional divisions inside each one nationwide exile tradition and at the courting among many of the exiled nationwide cultures between one another. in addition they examine the relation of every exile nationwide tradition to the tradition of its host kingdom. person essays are dedicated to Witold Gombrowicz, Paul Goma, Milan Kundera, Monica Lovincescu, Milo Crnjanski, Herta Müller, and to the ""internal exile"" of Imre Kertèsz. particular consciousness is dedicated to the hot varieties of exile that emerged in the course of the ex-Yugoslav wars, and to the issues of ""homecoming"" of exiled texts and writers.

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Having an audience in the native language is an existential need for most writers. Émigrés and expatriates from East-Central Europe could, as a rule, hold on to their home audience until they became publicly critical of the political regime. Those who fled, instantaneously lost their opportunity to publish at home and were forced to consider alternatives: they could try publishing for a native reading public abroad, or they had to learn to write for a larger public in a new language. Smuggling books into the homeland was all but impossible during World War II; in the later years of the communist regimes, from the 1960s onward, it became possible in some countries (notably Poland, partly in Czechoslovakia), though it remained an unstable and unreliable source of income.

Most of these Catholic Slovak writers – among them Rudolf Dilong, Mikulásˇ Sˇprinc, Stanislav Mecˇiar, Ján Okál’, and Jozef Cíger-Hronsky – fled to Italy, and from there, with the help of the Vatican, to Buenos Aires and North America. Andrej ˇ arnov and Milo Urban were extradited by the Allies. The latter received only Z a reprimand at home, and lived in Croatia for several decades before returning to Czechoslovakia in 1974. As members of the Romanian Orthodox Church, the Romanian Legionnaires and their sympathizers could not count on Vatican help to escape.

Miklós Bánffy and Áron Tamási). 16 Chapter I Each East-Central European communist regime forced its own pattern of exile and emigration. Yugoslavia, expelled in 1948 from the Stalin’s international Cominform, subsequently became a receiver rather than exporter of exiles (Vladimir Dedijer, a follower of Milovan -Dilas, was an exception). Many exiles left the other East-Central European countries in the late 1940s to escape the communist takeover and consolidation of power, but this stream dwindled by 1950, and even the death of Stalin (1953) did not ease immediately the border control.

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