By David E. Pollard
Within the past due Qing interval, from the Opium battle to the 1911 revolution, China absorbed the preliminary effect of Western palms, manufactures, technology and tradition, in that order. This quantity of essays bargains with the reception of Western literature, at the facts of translations made. Having to beat chinese language assumptions of cultural superiority, the conception that the West had a literature worthy observe grew simply progressively. It was once no longer until eventually the very finish of the nineteenth century translation of a Western novel (La dame aux camélias) completed renowned acclaim. yet this opened the floodgates: within the first decade of the 20 th century, extra translated fiction was once released than unique fiction.
The middle essays during this assortment take care of facets of this inflow in line with department of territory. a few take key works (e.g. Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin, Byron’s “The Isles of Greece”), a few pattern genres (science fiction, detective fiction, fables, political novels), the typical realization being to the changes made by way of translators to fit the existing aesthetic, cultural and social norms, and/or the present wishes and preoccupations of the receiving public. A huge assessment of translation actions is given within the introduction.
To current the topic in its actual guise, that of a big cultural shift, helping papers are incorporated to fill within the historical past and to explain many of the results of this overseas invasion on local literature. A rounded photograph emerges that may be intelligible to readers who've no really good wisdom of China.
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Extra info for Translation and Creation: Readings of Western Literature in Early Modern China, 1840-1918
From our bibliographical research it is clear that original works far outnumbered translated works. Up to 1911 translated works made up only 44%; A Ying's figure of 58% is incorrect. The most that can be said for A Ying's point of view is that the number of translated titles slightly exceeded original titles for the six years 1902-1907 (see graph below). 40 STATISTICAL SURVEY The Translation of European and American Fiction The source of translations published between 1840 and 1920 is often unclear: many omitted to state the original title and/or author.
Geography introduced among other things a map of the world, information about the five continents and the oceans, the five bands of the globe, and longitude and latitude. In history there was information about the products, education and customs of the major Western countries, like Spain, Portugal and Italy, Columbus's discovery of the New World, and the Seven Wonders of the ancient world. In medicine there was information about the human anatomy, with explanations of respiration, circulation, sensation, the muscular and nervous systems, and so on; the function of the cerebellum and Western pharmacological knowledge was also mentioned.
What is the evidence for the theory that the moon has no atmosphere and no water, nor any vegetation, and that the moon's surface is extremely cold? 4. g. In Shanghai there is currently a trick 32 FAMILIARITY WITH THE WEST with a human head, the head being placed on a dish on the table, with nothing under the table, yet the head can speak: what is the reason? When and where were the twenty-six letters of the English alphabet first used? Can Westerners distinguish the calls of birds and beasts? A large number of questions to do with common scientific knowledge were very elementary, for example: a) Why has the earth a north and south pole, but not an east and west pole?