Transnational Contexts of Culture, Gender, Class, and by Alexis Pulos, S. Austin Lee

By Alexis Pulos, S. Austin Lee

This booklet examines the neighborhood, neighborhood and transnational contexts of games via a concentrated research on gaming groups, the methods video game layout regulates gender and sophistication relatives, and the affects of colonization on video game layout. The severe curiosity in video games as a cultural artifact is roofed through a variety of interdisciplinary paintings. to spotlight the social affects of video games the 1st element of the ebook covers the structures equipped round excessive rating online game competitions, the advance of self sufficient online game layout groups, and the formation of fan groups and cosplay. the second one component of the ebook deals a deeper research of video game constructions, gender and masculinity, and the commercial constraints of empire which are equipped into online game layout. the ultimate part deals a macro viewpoint on transnational and colonial discourses equipped into the cultural buildings of East Asian video game play.

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In the early 1990s, the subgenre of danmaku (which roughly translates as “bullet curtain”) emerged and quickly became a staple in Japanese arcades. Although there is slight ambiguity in all subgenre definitions (Clearwater 2011), danmaku games are generally agreed to be shmups defined by the overwhelming number of bullets fired at the player (Ng 2005; GameOne 2009; Crawford 2013), the often highly complex geometric patterns these bullets etch out (McMillan 2010, 273; Bailey 2013) and a requirement for extremely fast reaction times from players (Clearwater 2011).

High Scores and Speedrunning? We can see that eSports literature acknowledges the physical dimension of gaming skill—essential to danmaku games—but it is clear that danmaku competition is nevertheless distinct from eSports, due to the lack of organizing bodies and tournaments, the indirect nature of this competition and the problematic concept of the champion which does not seem to fully translate into danmaku competition. Speedrunning—another competitive community based around singleplayer games and (like danmaku) the concept of the “world record” (rather than the “world champion”)—may be more illustrative.

Cooperation, Competition and Sportsmanship As we have seen in the above section, danmaku game world record competition exists in the space between our understandings of eSports and speedrunning, although it appears significantly closer to the latter than the former. Having explored this nature of world records, danmaku competition and the frameworks, we might use to understand ­them—acknowledging the BULLET HELL: THE GLOBALIZED GROWTH OF DANMAKU GAMES... 31 inevitable vagueness that competitor-reported world records bring with them—this chapter will now explore some of the intriguing impacts and aspects of danmaku competition, which cannot be fully articulated if relying solely upon work on eSports nor speedrunning.

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