By Adam Bezuijen, Haike van Lottum
Following years of analysis, the 1st bored tunnel in gentle soil within the Netherlands, the Tweede Heinenoord tunnel, used to be accomplished in 1998. in view that then, Dutch engineers have elevated their wisdom of sentimental soil tunnelling, with an important and significant a part of this learn being performed by way of GeoDelft, the Dutch nationwide Institute of Geo-Engineering. This publication comprises an important courses through GeoDelft with regards to tender soil tunnelling, targeting the interval from 1992 to the present, it is split into 4 major headings: box measurements; grout behaviour; version checking out; and numerical research. This striking evaluation of the growth made within the Netherlands in delicate soil tunnelling learn over greater than a decade is a worthy source to these operating in tender soil tunnelling worldwide.
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Extra resources for Tunnelling. A Decade of Progress. GeoDelft 1995-2005
F. van, 2000. Influence of infiltration and Groundwater flow on Tunnel stability. Proc. Int. Conf. on geotechnical aspects of underground construction in soft grounds, eds. Kusakabe O. Fujita K and Niyazaki Y. CUR/COB 2000, Directive for the design of drilled tunnels for roads and tunnels. Final report commission L500 (in Dutch). Horn N. 1961. Horizontaler Erddruck auf senkrechte Abslussflächen von Tunnelrören. Landeskonferenz der Ungarischen Tiefbauindustri. pp. 7–16. Jancsecz S. & Steiner W. 1994.
Field measurements (Joustra, 2002) and model experiments (Bezuijen 2000) have shown that ‘too wet’ or ‘too dry’in a saturated sand does not only depend on the foam properties, the foam injection ratio (FIR) and foam expansion ratio (FER), but also depends on the interaction between foam and groundwater. In permeable sand the excess pressure in the foam with respect to the pore water will cause a groundwater flow from the tunnel face. As a result the foam will replace the pore water and the mixture in the mixing chamber will be relatively dry.
Results were summarised by Joustra (2002) and Rodenhuis (2002). However, it appeared from their results that reality is more complex than theory. In a real tunnelling situation the drilling speed is not constant, the excess pressure varies, the FIR varies, the mixture is not homogeneous over the mixing chamber and sometimes air escaped during tunnelling. Therefore it is not possible to make a general comparison between measurements and calculations. No samples were taken for MQ1. Samples taken for MQ4 (10 samples for 2 tubes) showed an average density of 1600 kg/m3 , larger than would be expected if all pore water was expelled by the foam (1410 kg/m3 for foam with an expansion ratio of 10).